Friday, May 22, 2020
There is no such thing as a sleep deprived horse, bat, whale, or any other mammal for that matter except the human. Humans are the only creature in their mammalian class to prolong other activities at the expense of sleep (National Sleep Foundation 1). The cost of such practices is our own lives and unfortunately, many do not know it. Study author Dr. Robert Vorona, an associate professor of internal medicine in the Division of Sleep Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia stated Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËTeenagers need over nine hours of sleep a night, and it looks like a large number of teens donÃ¢â¬â¢t get sufficient sleep . . . that relates to the time that high schools beginÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ (qtd. in Holhan 1). I believe the amount of sleep a student can get is largely based on the time his or her school begins. Sleep and student are not synonymous as in the fact that if one is affiliated with any sports, clubs, after school activities, or enrolled in challenging courses they are most likely up to their neck in home work once they arrive home. Finishing homework assignments, especially after coming home from an after school activity, can sometimes interfere with the 7-9 hours of sleep teenagers need every night. This large problem is detrimental for many reasons. Not receiving a full nights rest before waking up and driving to work or school early in the morning can simulate effects similar to driving under the influence of drugs which can lead to traffic collisions (Kendall Hamilton
Thursday, May 7, 2020
Introduction There are several ongoing of issues that are effecting adolescents in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society ranging from low self-esteem, teen pregnancy, and obesity. Also, amongst these issues are the growing concerns and effects of bullying. Its epidemic is also starting to become closely related to the growing numbers of suicide rates amongst adolescents within the United States and across the globe. However, there are several adults that may take bullying lightly thinking that it is just a part of kids being kids. Whereas to an adolescent, bullying can cause long-term effects as they transition into adulthood. However, in order for one to examine the long-term effects of bullying one must be able to define what bullying is and determine theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Although harassment and bullying are be defined as two different things, legally, there are hopes that these policies can help reduce bullying if they are implemented correctly and accordingly. In conjunction to state and federa l laws, studies also show that an adolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s social environment can have a major effect on bullying as well. There are several theories that articulate that an adolescent can becomes easily influenced by intimate relationships and their social environments; such as the Primary Socialization Theory and BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s Social Learning Theory. Studies have shown that bullying rates are more likely to be lower in bigger schools than in smaller schools that no transition from middle to high school. Also, according to statistical records, 9 out of 10 youth that are bullied at school are homosexual identified youth which in turns leads to them being two to three times more likely to commit suicide. According to Kalman (2013), when it comes to eliminating the issues and concerns of bullying, individuals are too busy trying to take legal/law enforcement action instead of taking scientific/psychological approaches. By not addressing these issues correctly, bullying rates will continue to increase leading to the long-term effects such as criminality and violent behaviors in later adult years. Background Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior with the intentions ofShow MoreRelatedThe Long Term Effects of Bullying Among Teenagers769 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe reasoning behind an issue and or a prevention and intervention plan for major issues, such as bullying, that are affecting individuals and the society, it is important that theoretical frameworks are used. According to the 2010 statistics, with bullying becoming a rapidly growing issue and concern affecting both youth and adults, the crime of bullying will not be going away anytime soon. Bullying is performed in several different forms ranging from physically, verbally, and even cyber within ourRead MoreCyber Bullying: A Study of Long Term Effects on Adolescent Cyber Bullying1561 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction: Cyber bullying is a topic that has been researched many times. As technology changes, it is important that research is kept up to date on how victimization can affect present and future psychosocial adjustment issues. Cyber bullying is defined as victimization that intends to harm another through electronic means, where individuals can harm without physical interaction. (Tokunaga, 2010). Cyber bullying requires little planning and there is little chance of being caught. It is importantRead MoreThe Short Term Effects Of Bullying On Adolescents969 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswebsite Eyes on Bullying statistically in a U.S. national study with youth in grades 6 through 10, almost 30% Ã¢â¬âmore than 5.7 millionÃ¢â¬âwere involved in moderate or frequent bullying during the current school term, as a bully, victim, or both. Ã¢â¬Å"According to researchers, bullying is still commonly viewed by many as just a harmless rite of passage or an inevitable part of growing up.Ã¢â¬ (Impact of Bu llying Traits both victims, bullies into Adulthood) Does bullying have short term effects on adolescents?Read MoreAbstract Bullying1358 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract Bullying is a social and psychological issue among animals and humans that emerges in an emotional, verbal, or physical form. Although the issue of bullying among humans has existed for quite some time, recent research of the issue has grown significantly and indicates that bullying takes many forms and effects individuals or groups of different ages, genders, races, geographic locations, and socio-economic status. There are many causes of bullying and the goal of the analysis is to Read MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On Children s Adult Life1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesB2 11/21/14 The Effects of Bullying All throughout the world, there are many people being bullied at this very moment. While bullying is considered as a rite of passage to some people, it is becoming more and more harmful and destructive to its many victims. Bullying is known as Ã¢â¬Å"unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalanceÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying DefinitionÃ¢â¬ 1). This can be seen through both boys and girls, young and old. Bullying has no age limitRead MoreBullying : A Child s Worst Nightmare868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBullying. A child s worst nightmare; it is a terrible and recurring sight in society. All children can handle this differently. The causes of bullying are normally related to how a child is raised or just on his/her mental status. Bullying has negative effects on everyone involved; the bully, the victim, and even the bystanders. The prevention or stopping of bullying is necessary for society. By having a clear understanding of the ca uses and effects of bullying it will guide people to stopping orRead MoreBullying Is A Universal Issue1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBullying is a universal issue that can be found in schools worldwide and it has become an increasing pressing issue within the current school system. It can be said that bullying begins during the earlier stages of primary school and then continues through to secondary schools. According to the NSPCC (2014), bullying is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"a behaviour that hurts someone.Ã¢â¬ This type of behaviour can involve an individual engaging in name calling, threatening another individual as well as physically abusingRead MoreEssay on Effects of Bullying 1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Bullying is a terrible and dangerous activity that occurs in numerous places, such as schools, workplaces, and even homes. According to a study conducted in 2010, Ã¢â¬Å"about one in seven students in grades kindergarten through 12th grade is either a bully or has been a victim of bullyingÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Bullying StatisticsÃ¢â¬ ). Bullying can be performed by a student, co-worker, or even a parent. There are many classifications of bullying, each with their own causes, such as a lack of parental guidance, low self esteemRead MoreBullying Is A Serious And Persistent Concern Facing Modern Youth Essay1535 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessimple, yet painful action characterized as bullying..... Bullying refers to any physical or emotional action that s used to intentionally hurt or even terrorize a person. As stated by psychologist, Jodi Viljoen, and other individuals, The recent surge of empirical studies has identified bullying as a serious and persistent concern facing modern youth (Viljoen , O Neill, Sidhu, 2005, pg. 521). Many people are the suspects and even the victims of bullying, in spite of the fact that it isn t visibleRead MoreNegative Effects Of Bullying1232 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Bullying is a continuing problem that has affected individuals from their childhood and continuing well into adulthood. Consequences of bullying are vast in their potential to negatively impact the person s physical, emotional, and psychological state of well being. The poor management of stress brought by the onset of bullying affects social health both short term and long term foreshadowing numerous potential risk factors and actions. Prevalent issues in victims include higher chances of mental
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Before diving into the question of this essay, one that looks simple on the surface but reveals itself to be as complicated as it is deep, I found myself asking how we define Ã¢â¬Å"statehoodÃ¢â¬ . ItÃ¢â¬â¢s all good and well to say that the state is a contested organisation, but when the idea of what exactly a state is comes into it, that statement becomes all the less clear. By definition a nation state is a state/country that possesses clear borders and land, and contains mostly the same type of people by either race or cultural background. We will write a custom essay sample on The Definition of Statehood or any similar topic only for you Order Now ttp://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/467746/political-system/36702/National-political-systems? anchor=ref416908 Yet some states have numerous ethnicities, Nigeria for example has been calculated to have over two hundred culturally distinct groups, even Gambia, whose population numbers about half a million people, has eight distinct ethnic groups (Hughes 1981: 122). Then again, these are both countries that are considered as Ã¢â¬Å"failed statesÃ¢â¬ , something I will return to later on. According to Philip Cerny, statehood is the capacity to guard the social, economic and political life of its people and also to protect them from external threats and predators. He then goes on to say that states regularly fail at one of these tasks, often not doing well at both at the same time. Statehood, according to Cerny, is the Ã¢â¬Å"problematique of the modern world system itselfÃ¢â¬ . Why? Why are nation states so bad at doing what they say on the tin? Surely it canÃ¢â¬â¢t be that hard to defend oneÃ¢â¬â¢s people and at the same time give them basic needs such as employment, welfare and education. Of course, the world isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a perfect place, and we have yet to reach the utopia dreamt of by our grandparents, but really does everything have to be so terrible? To be fair Cerny does give a good argument against that, and provides much evidence to show that the state is indeed a contested organisation. He argues that Ã¢â¬Å"future structural organisational developments will depend on the kinds of political coalitions that can be built to confront and deal with those challengesÃ¢â¬ , especially those involving cross-border networks. In that case the result is likely to be a more complex form of world politics that is not only multi-level but also multi-nodal. Cerny makes a clear statement that the ideal states are Ã¢â¬Å"organisationally distinct from families, churches, classes, races, economic institutionsÃ¢â¬ and also non-state political organisations. He then simplifies that claim that the state is a contested organisation by breaking it down into 3 sections: economically, socially and politically. First we will look at each of these individually and examine that statement. Of the three, the most interesting to me was his ascertain that the state is an economically contested organisation. Cerny says that states are organised through relationships of power, but they are also bound to the ideals of fairness and justice. Economic groups such as corporations and markets however, are not. They revolve around a principle of profit and arenÃ¢â¬â¢t shackled by the same need to be Ã¢â¬ËniceÃ¢â¬â¢ that states are. One can go so far as to say that Cerny is nearly directly addressing the issue of globalisation without ever saying the word. Take big companies such as Coca Cola or McDonalds, while they give a consumer-friendly image and do help communities with various projects, at the end of the day they are 100% profit driven and if circumstances dictated that they must drop half their workforce to save costs, you can be sure that they would. Globalisation has meant that corporations no longer operate within borders, and for the most part are free to trade as they please. That some of these firms make more money than the Irish state is a very scary thought indeed. It is an invasive and destabilizing phenomenon that states must contest with. Not only does it signal heightened interconnectedness, but it encroaches into those formal-legal aspects of sovereignty that secure or tie down authority in the first instance, and benefit from it in the second. In other words, Ã¢â¬Å"the transnational connections inherent in globalisation are significant on a qualitative as well as a quantitative level. But what new patterns of authority are emerging here? Ã¢â¬ (Williams 1996: 118) It is said of sovereignty that there is plenty of it around, but that as a result of globalisation Ã¢â¬Å"the sites for its concentration have changed. According to this argument states are being forced to concede certain of their sovereign powers to regional, transnational or world bodies on one hand, and to local and other sub-national institutions on the other. On a side note while on the point of globalisation, though Cerny doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t explore the idea it is also worth mentioning the globalisation of military power as it contests with every stat e organisation. Advanced nuclear weapons systems can now operate worldwide, for they can deliver their payloads to any place at all on the planet, and do so within a very short time. They are thus capable of making the whole earth uninhabitable, and of threatening the very survival of the all states, whether they wish it or not (Poggi 1990: 177). You really canÃ¢â¬â¢t get much more global than that. The next area we will examine is CernyÃ¢â¬â¢s claim that the state is a socially contested organisation. According to him states Ã¢â¬Å"are not natural, spontaneous emanationsÃ¢â¬ from a Ã¢â¬Å"taken for granted, pre-existing society, people, or publicÃ¢â¬ , they are made up from real people who base them on a range of often divided groups such as class, ethnicity, religion and ideology to name a few. People who are born in to this nation state may not always agree with or like the way things are and can find themselves caught in conflicts of identity, and the state finds itself constantly at odds with those who feel socially indoctrinated with the rules, power structures and policies of that state. As Cerny says, Ã¢â¬Å"citizens are made, not bornÃ¢â¬ . Another big social contender is the internet, any one person can simply log on to Facebook (or other social networking sites) and instantly connect with people all over the world, again ignoring state boundaries. The final point that is discussed is that the state is a politically contested organisation. This can nearly go without saying, as there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a state in the world that hasnÃ¢â¬â¢t been challenged politically at one stage or another. This happens on all ends of the scale, from as Cerny puts it: Ã¢â¬Å"absolutist monarchs and national revolutionaries to various bureaucrats, officials, patrons and clientsÃ¢â¬ . He even goes on to mention religious movements and criminal gangs. It is important to note that the organisational strengths that Cerny mentions, whether they be rooted in widely accepted social identities or bonds, or that they have power internationally, need not only apply to Westphalian states (and indeed many of those Ã¢â¬ËofficialÃ¢â¬â¢ states are weak on those levels). Take certain groups such as Hezbollah or the IRA for example, upon looking past the fact that they are viewed by some as terrorist organisations (although most European countries have refused to classify Hezbollah as a terrorist organisation [http://www. digitalnpq. org/archive/2009_summer/03_qassem. tml]), these groups often take on the state roles for the people they claim to serve. Hezbollah is a major provider of social services, operating schools, hospitals, and agricultural services for thousands and playing a significant part in Lebanese politics. [http://www. cfr. org/publication/9155/hezbollah_aka_hizbollah_hizbullah. html? breadcrumb=/]. Likewise the IRA are renow ned for looking after their own, be it ensuring the well being of prisoner families or upholding the law (or at least a version of it), in areas where traditional state politics have failed. Going back now to the other two headings for the contested state, economically and politically, and applying them to the state Ã¢â¬Å"alternativesÃ¢â¬ I mentioned above, it is hard to understand why Cerny didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do the same. One can not simply draw a line in the sand and say that all the ones over here (those of the Westphalia type) are states, and those over there are not. There are many similarities to be found on both sides. These groups also find themselves to be contested organisations. Yes it can be argued that economically, Hezbollah only functions because the nation states of Iran and Syria support them, but the same was also said of the peripheral state of Cuba when it was funded by the USSR (Giddens 1985: 269). In the north the IRA have succeeded in many social areas that the government have not, giving identity, protection and services to a select group of people who otherwise feel abandoned by a system that is supposed to do the same. The downfall of these groups is that their (occasional) focus on fighting and violence only serves to detract from the other areas. Yet returning to Cerny, he raises the point that some find the cost of the USÃ¢â¬â¢s war in Iraq (estimated at 2-3 trillion dollars), has prevented it from addressing issues both domestically (health care and employment for example) and abroad (development aid, fighting disease ect). This shows that even the largest of official states can do itself damage by focusing too much on military operations. But what happens when a state can do no more for its people? When it becomes such a contested organisation that it loses physical control of its How to cite The Definition of Statehood, Papers
Monday, April 27, 2020
Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection Paper Pedagogy of the Oppressed, falls into the political philosophy genre. After I read Chapter 2 of Pedagogy of the Oppressed, my first thought was about the reservation boarding school system. Indian schooling started with missionaries and teachers in missionary schools were at least as interested in salvation as in education. According to many observers, the discipline of the schools usually included getting Indians to dress, speak, and act like white people. Native Americans serve as perfect Ã¢â¬Å"containersÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"receptaclesÃ¢â¬ for teachers of that time. (Freire 4) Many teachers that teach in Tribal communities often use the concept of Ã¢â¬Å"the teacher know everything and the students know nothingÃ¢â¬ . (Freire 8) This semester I had a teacher that said, Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to teach you as though you know nothingÃ¢â¬ . This goes to show that teachers, even in current times are obsessed with their authority over students. The Ã¢â¬Å"banking systemÃ¢â¬ only works to the extent of students being able to regurgitate what the teacher tells the student. The students do not learn when they are told to memorize items, just so the student can get a good test grade. I have experienced this during my academic career. I personally retain more information when teachers communicate and tell me why I need to learn what I need to learn. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬â¢Four times four is sixteen; the capital of Para is Belem. The students records, memorizes, and repeats these phrases without perceiving what four times four really means, or realizing the true significance of Ã¢â¬Å"capitalÃ¢â¬ in the affirmation Ã¢â¬Ëthe capital of Para is Belem,Ã¢â¬â¢ that is, what Belem means for Para and what Para means for Brazil. Ã¢â¬ This type of teaching is taught everywhere. I feel as though it is worse for Tribal communities, and IÃ¢â¬â¢m only saying that because the high school drop out rate is higher among Native Americans th an other ethnicities. Not to mention, in the university level, the graduation rate is lower. We will write a custom essay sample on Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I believe, is because of the quality of education we, Native, people receive in Tribal Communities. This reading was fairly difficult. I am not used to reading such complex writings. In order to understand the reading more efficiently, I think it would be better to start with something slightly simpler. This is the first time I have ever read something of this magnitude, I enjoyed it. I felt as though it challenged me to break out of my comfort zone. Bibliography Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000.
Thursday, March 19, 2020
Punic War essays The Punic Wars was a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage for a period of 118 years. Rome, one of the sides of these wars, was a immense empire whose influence covered much of the known world at the time. Carthage, the other player in the Punic Wars, was a city state on the North Coast of Africa which had partial control over Sicily before wars and whose location was ideal for trading ground in the Mediterranean. The first war (264-241 BC) started because a conflict between two different city states on the island of Sicily, Messana and Syracuse, had been going on and eventually both Rome and Carthage stepped in. During their intervention, Carthage began to control more and more of the island of Sicily. So because of Carthages expanding influence of Sicily, many Romans felt that Carthages authority in Sicily threatened them and their trading. Romans attacked and quickly gained Sicily back in their control. However, because of Romes lack of a navy they could not push Carthage back any farther. Rome soon built a navy. After C. Duilius won the first Roman sea battle of the Punic Wars, Rome dominated the sea winning all but one sea battle for the rest of the First Punic War. With Romes authority on land and at sea, Carthage surrendered after the Roman victory at the Aegates Islands in 241 BC. The peace lasted for twenty-three years before Carthages resentfulness in losing the first war brought them into a second. The centerstone of the Second Punic War was one man, Hannibal, and his reign on one of the great decisive wars of history.1 Hannibal in 218 BC crosses the Alps into the Po Valley with an elephant baggage train. He got the aid of the Guals, a people who were conquered by the Romans. Hannibal rolled through northern Italy winning every battle along the way. Meanwhile the Romans had control of the Mediterranean Sea and stopped reinforcements from Spa...
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
The Truth Behind Pirate Legends and Myths With new books and movies coming out all the time, pirates have never been more popular than now. But is the iconic image of a peg-legged pirate with a treasure map and a parrot on his shoulder historically accurate? Lets sort the facts from the myths about pirates of the Golden Age of piracy, which lasted from 1700 to 1725. Pirates Buried Their Treasure Mostly myth. Some pirates did bury treasure - notably, Captain William Kidd - but it was not a common practice. Pirates wanted their share of the loot right away, and they tended to spend it quickly. Also, much of the loot collected by pirates was not in the form of silver or gold. Most of it was ordinary trade goods, such as food, lumber, cloth, animal hides, and so on. Burying these things would ruin them! They Made People Walk the Plank Myth. Why make them walk off a plank if its easier to throw them overboard? Pirates had many punishments at their disposal, including keel-hauling, marooning, dispensing lashes, and more. Some later pirates allegedly made their victims walk off a plank, but it was hardly common practice. Many Pirates Had Eye Patches and Peg Legs True. Life at sea was harsh, especially if you were in the navy or on board a pirate vessel. The battles and fighting caused many injuries, as men fought with swords, firearms, and cannons. Often, the gunners - those men in charge of the cannons - had the worst of it. An improperly-secured cannon could fly around the deck, maiming everyone near it. Other problems, such as deafness, were occupational hazards. They Lived by a Pirate Ã¢â¬Å"CodeÃ¢â¬ True. Almost every pirate ship had a set of articles that all new pirates had to agree to. It clearly set out how the loot would be divided, who had to do what and what was expected of everyone. Pirates were often punished for fighting on board, which was strictly forbidden. Instead, pirates who had a grudge could fight all they wanted on land. Some pirate articles have survived to this day, including the pirate code of George Lowther and his crew. Crews Were All Males Myth. There were female pirates who were just as lethal and vicious as their male counterparts. Anne Bonny and Mary Read served with the colorful Calico Jack Rackham and were famous for berating him when he surrendered. Its true that female pirates were rare, but not unheard of. Pirates Often Used Colorful Phrases Mostly myth. Pirates would have spoken like any other lower-class sailors from England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, or the American colonies. While their language and accent must certainly have been colorful, it bore little resemblance to what we associate with pirate language today. For that, we have to thank British actor Robert Newton, who played Long John Silver in movies and on TV in the 1950s. It was he who defined the pirate accent and popularized many of the sayings we associate with pirates today. Sources: Cordingly, David. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Random House Trade Paperbacks, 1996, NY. Defoe, Daniel (Captain Charles Johnson). A General History of the Pyrates. Edited by Manuel Schonhorn, Dover Publications, 1972/1999, USA. Konstam, Angus. World Atlas of Pirates. Lyons Press, 2009. Konstam, Angus. The Pirate Ship 1660-1730. Osprey, 2003, NY.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
What does levinas mean when he claims that ethics is the first philosophy - Essay Example In light of that, it can be said that Levinas is not writing an ethics at all. Instead, he is exploring the meaning of intersubjectivity and lived immediacy in light of three themes: transcendence, existence, and the human otherÃ¢â¬ (Bergo, 2007). Levinas' claim that the first philosophy is ethics, then, must be understood based off of his esoteric interpretation of the idea of ethics; nonetheless, the argument has some compelling qualities. Levinas' ethics begins with the simple, face-to-face interaction with another human being. Levinas tries to make the claim that the way that people behave when faced with each other implicitly places them in the same moral universe. At the core of Levinas's mature thought...are descriptions of the encounter with another person. That encounter evinces a particular feature: the other impacts me unlike any worldly object or force. I can constitute the other person cognitively, on the basis of vision, as an alter ego. I can see that another human being is Ã¢â¬Å"like me,Ã¢â¬ acts like me, appears to be the master of her conscious life. That was Edmund Husserl's basic phenomenological approach to constituting other people within a shared social universe. For Levinas, then, the fundamental reality to an interpersonal encounter is the basis for ethics. This ties in with ideas of ethics that Victorian-era scholars, Hume and Enlightenment scholars in general had about the obvious connection between empathy for others and moral behavior. (Wright, 1983, pg. 232; Parrinder, 1972; Halperin, 1974). Hume, for example, argued that empathy preceded more advanced moral judgments and was a necessary condition for those judgments: Ã¢â¬Å"[S]ympathy is the source of the esteem, which we pay to all the artificial virtuesÃ¢â¬ (Wright, 1983, pg. 232). Hume's position is that empathy naturally guides us to behave to others morally: There is no need to tell most fathers that it is wrong to starve their children, and no need to tell people not to beat their friends randomly. It is when that empathy is stunted that pathological behavior is caused. Hume argued that the role of morality was merely to make explicit and clear the transition from obvious pri nciples derived from empathy to abstract behavior norms. Indeed, the Enlightenment in total agreed with Levinas' sentiment that it was human sympathy and interpersonal interaction that gave birth to moral behavior. Even Adam Smith, seemingly amoral in his defense of markets, actually assumed a deep empathy in human behavior, which combined with a fundamental political and economic equality that he assumed for his model