Monday, August 24, 2020

National Business Systems Variations

National Business Systems Variations In this article I will investigate how Porters jewel model clarifies the varieties in national business frameworks and similar financial execution and to what degree different thoughts and approaches will be required. Watchman presented the precious stone model of national upper hand (1990) to clarify why various nations are more serious than others and why various organizations inside the nations are progressively serious. The model suggests that the national command post of an industry assumes a significant job in accomplishing a bit of leeway on an all inclusive scale. This command post contributes the fundamental factors that will bolster the associations in building favorable circumstances in worldwide rivalry. Japans car industry and US semiconductor industry have both been connected to Porters precious stone model in making one of a kind business frameworks and increasing upper hand over different enterprises. Doorman (1990) distinguished four determinants in accomplishing a national upper hand he reasons that a blend of the four determinates inside a country has a gigantic impact on the serious quality of the organizations situated there. Doorman (1990) contends that serious enterprises appear as specific bunches of locally established firms. Bunches are corresponded through vertical relations, for example, purchasers coordinating with providers or through flat relations through clients, innovation, aptitudes, dissemination channels and so forth (Chen et al 2008). These specific bunches will empower a country to make business frameworks which will prompt upper hand and monetary achievement. Factor condition is the countries position on variables of creation that is important to contend in a given industry, for instance talented work or foundation. These national factors frequently give starting focal points to the country. Every country has specific factor conditions that are progressively good. For instance, Japans huge pool of designers is reflected by the quantity of building graduates. These building graduates have been fundamental to Japans accomplishment in assortment of assembling enterprises. Watchman (1990) calls attention to that these components dont must be nature made or acquired. Home interest conditions can impact the making of explicit factor conditions which can influence the bearing of the advancement and progression of item improvement. Watchman contends (1990) that home interest settles upon three significant attributes. First the blend of clients needs and needs. Second the requesting purchasers in the command post will pressure organizations into satisfying high guidelines. For instance Japanese buyers esteem space-sparing gave the country a lead in reduced items and Americas significant distances have prompted serious quality in extremely enormous truck motors. Third, an industry will have a favorable position in advertise portions which are more significant at home than somewhere else. In every one of these occurrences, it isn't the size of the home market that is significant, however the degree to which it urges firms to enhance. A huge home market which meets each of the three conditions will be profoundly steady of universal seriousness (Davies a nd Ellis 2000). A related and supporting industry is the point at which one comprehensively effective assembling organization can make favorable circumstances in other comparable assembling organizations. A country enterprises will be better ready to contend universally if there are bunches of ventures in the command post economy which are connected to one another through vertical or even connections among providers, clients and circulation channels. For instance Germany has a group in synthetic compounds and USA in the semi-conductor industry. Dyer (1994) found in his examination that the Japanese system associations with their providers can empower the organization to send their laborers to help clients with the work, position the production line close to the clients or even put resources into physical resources that are altered. This will along these lines permit the Japaneses auto organizations to stay aware of the stock and transportation costs low empowering them to improve the item advancemen t. For instance Toyota had the option to profit by their creation arranges as they made get together plants that are topographically close with their providers. The firm structure, procedure, and competition are the conditions administering how organizations are molded, overseen and manage residential contention in a country. The social variables are significant for every country. For instance every nation will have distinctive social attributes in which the business is organized. This will make benefits for every country and industry. In Japan the vehicle business competition is solid, has seven significant organizations: Toyota, Honda, Nissan, Mitsubishi, Suzuki, Mazda, and Subaru which all battle for the piece of the overall industry. These seven organizations contend strongly in the home country, and inside different countries and markets. Solid residential rivalry requests every one of these organizations to have unrivaled advances, items, and the executives practices to contend and make due, for instance there is high number of architects in the board that accentuation on improving assembling forms. The US has just two fundamental orga nizations in car industry which are Ford and General Motors. The US makes have expressed that the nature of the vehicles of Japanese vehicles is superior to the US vehicles. Toyota and different automakers in Japan had the option to snatch 25% of the US auto advertise industry while the US home makers for the vehicles couldn't rival the Japanese cost and on the nature of the item (Buffa 1984). Notwithstanding the four conditions, Porter (1990) brings up two significant segments which are the job of chance which are significant as it permits countries to move their serious position and change the states of the jewel model. Chance occasions impactsly affect countries for instance the oil stun assisted with overhauling Japanese industry (Porter 1990). The job of the administration is a significant impact on current global rivalry. The administrations can advance the arrangements a country ought to follow to make points of interest, empowering the businesses in a country to build up a solid serious position all inclusive. For instance the administration strategy for Japan and US has made accomplishment for these countries. As per Porter (1990) governments can advance the points of interest by guaranteeing there is high capability of item execution, moral gauges, or empowering sensibility and exchange between the providers and purchasers on a household level. For instance the U S governments gave enormous help in semiconductor industry in concentrating on explicit items that fulfill customer need for instance the rocket framework in the US national security. Countries can utilize Porters (1990) precious stone model to recognize which organizations frameworks they can work to create an upper hand and rival others countries all around. The Japanese have significant focal points in Porters precious stone components. The semiconductor assembling and programming administrations are key enterprises that have contributed extraordinarily to US development and profitability during the 1970s. Okimoto, Sugana and Weinstein (1984) explore found that the US organizations had the option to acquire upper hand in key enterprises, for example, steel, cars and customer gadgets. These organizations had the capacity to set the measures of every industry, make new innovation and control portions of the world market. The business sectors and enterprises that Japan have picked or made an upper hand are the cars, steel, cruisers, cameras and little machines. The accomplishment of Japanese car industry is because of the cozy associations with their providers. For instance both Toyota and Nissan can work intimately with their flexibly creation system to deliver excellent vehicles; this gives the Japanese producers a bit of leeway over the US automakers (Dyer 1994). Research found on Numakura (2004) article has indicated that the Japanese car organizations have more prominent higher net revenues than the American organizations. This is on the grounds that the Japanese creation frameworks, for example, Just in time (JIT) and Kaizen have empowered the business to expand their profitability and cost decrease. Contrasted with US, instead of having a cozy relationship, the organizations are bound to impact their provider by various vital polices (Buffa 1987). During the 1970s the Japanese had work cost foc al points, solid systems of providers, requesting buyers which empowered them to increase upper hand over different countries. Anyway Porter (1990) underplays the job of history, late advancement hypothesis, globalization, culture and administrative venture in deciding the upper hand. Because of characterizing the issue not completely, he offers an inadequate arrangement (O Shaughnessy 1997). This shows different methodologies are required to clarify different business frameworks and similar financial execution in countries. Gerschenkron (1962) hypothesis on late industrialisation could be another way to deal with Porters hypothesis to clarify the monetary presentation of a country. The hypothesis shows how Japan as a country had the option to experience a time of fast development during 1951-1990 that helped them to contend all around. Japans economy helped after the US declined as during the 1970s the Japanese organizations had the option to supplant the US heads in key enterprises. The creation and activity the board empowered the Japanese ventures to turn into a serious country. This was done through their creation frameworks and assembling items requiring little to no effort. The Japanese organizations had the option to do this by offering the customers great quality items at modest costs. Table 1 (Capdevielle Alvarez 1981) shows a near proof of how US organizations profitability arrived at the midpoint of at 2.7% in 1960 and diminished at - 0.3% at 1980. While simultaneously Japan arrived at the midpoint of a profitability increment of 9.4%, Germany and France produ

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Complying with International Accounting Standards

Title: Contrast and analyze the technique and balance whereupon Nike Corporation concentrates on remote money findings in footings of IAS 21 and all other important IAS IFAS statutes. In the occasion if the organization reports blending to global rules, talk the findings comparable to the rules applied in the Home condition of the company. Presentation All around, there are figure of bookkeeping rules, the vast majority of every one of the, two essential bookkeeping measures are International Accounting Standards actualized by the International Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) and the Generally Accepted Accounting Practice of the USA, which is executed by the Financial Accounting Standards Board ( FASB ) . Bookkeeping Standards are set of bookkeeping guidelines that administer the way in how the chronicles ( financial proclamations ) of a company is shown At a worldwide degree, it is the obligation of The International Federation of Accountants ( IFAC ) to direct bookkeeping natural structures in respect of congruity with bookkeeping standards. The point of the alliance is to â€Å"develop and uplift overall bookkeeping calling with consonant standards†1 and incorporated coordination inside the calling. Where a worry has a worldwide measurement, it must follow and follow with the universal bookkeeping rules. In add-on, similarity with IAS will support global concerns and universal financial specialists to decipher the applicable bookkeeping data of the universally exchanging concern. For delineation, to balance a Gallic organization with an Australian organization it is required for each organization to uncover their bookkeeping data in a reasonably practically identical strategy. Meaning OF IAS IAS incorporate a figure of rules, every standard exchanges with arranged bookkeeping issues partner to remote minutess and different minutess that do non hold a household segment and in this way require to be controlled at a worldwide degree. Global Accounting Standard 21 is utilized for the remedy of the standard signifier of including remote money minutess and outside activities in the company’s financial explanation. Furthermore, it endorses the interlingual version of monetary articulations into an introduction money. The difficulties underscoring this standard are finding the work of a swapping scale and the depicting the impacts of changes in return rates in the financial articulations. Following are a portion of the cardinal bookkeeping classification utilized under IAS 21.8: Utilitarian money/estimation currencyis the cash of the essential financial condition in the legitimate living arrangement of company’s activity. Introduction cash is the money where monetary explanations are introduced. Trade contrast is the distinction following from a change of specific units of a one money into another cash at an alternate swapping scale. Remote activity identifies with the exercises that are situated in another state other than the inclusion try this incorporate a subordinate of the parent organization, partner, joint endeavor or a region. The estimating and introduction of financial explanations under IAS 21 was supplanted by IAS 21 ( reconsidered 2003 ) ; this modification is the impact of the impacts of changes in Foreign Exchange Rates. This was strong on one-year financial periods get bringing down on or after 1stJanuary 2005. ISA 17 necessitates that income upgrade related issues must be gathered in monetary chronicles in similarity with the IAS by uncovering resources taken on rentals on the accounting report 2. Under IAS 29.39 ( B ) and 40 companies are under obligation to put the utilization of methodological investigation in utilizing IAS 29 as a disclosure arrangement of the bookkeeping measures 3. ISA 39 is utilized for the estimation and esteeming resources and monetary liabilities that in remote cash. ISA 21 concerns the trade rates in change overing remote cash financial resources and liabilities into national money by using the end-month trade money rate 4. Materialness OF IAS Global Accounting Standards are set of expound rundown of guidelines arranged for officers and organizations for the similarity in the creation of bookkeeping proclamations. Global Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) under ( SIC 30.7-14 ) allows a few undertakings in different states in a hyperinflationary domain like the USA to use USA dollar other than using the estimation money. If an organization applies this recompense, the partnership must ensure that effects of hyperinflation are appropriately tended to ( ISA 21.36 ) 5. Be that as it may, must follow the correct procedure by rehashing the nearby money IFRS financial proclamations to the mensurating unit current at the monetary record day of the month [ IAS29.7-8 ] [ SIC-19.5-9 ] , along these lines, using the year-end conversion scale, to decipher the monetary articulations into the steady cash for all periods introduced. SIC 19 verbalized that the commissariats for monetary data must be utile to mirror the financial portion of the cardinal occasions and fortunes that are applicable to that organization. Moreover, the utilization of money to mensurate focuses in the financial explanation must be custom-made to gracefully data sing the organization. The estimating of outside money focuses must be treated as remote cash in the monetary articulation and the translating of financial proclamation. Unavoidably, there are no commissariats under the International Accounting Standard 19 for enterprise to arbitrarily make to suit strides for the dismissing of rehashing monetary explanations that are treated in the cash of a â€Å"hyperinflationary economy† . Hyperinflationary monetary framework has the undermentioned part: the accumulation of non-conservative resources in a stable outside cash ; the appearance of well stable remote money is known as a budgetary total, these being capital merchandise, rewards and lease. Value file interconnects to estimating, pay of laborers and the inclusion rates. Under IAS 29.3 ( a ) ( nutrient E ) the combined increasing costs rate more than three mature ages will approach or rise above 100 % . At long last, the estimating of acknowledgment net incomes are estimated in a way that makes up for the anticipated loss of trading power during the acknowledgment time frame. As an outline, lets expect that a British organization as a stage of its focuses in the financial explanation utilizes the British lb as a proper money under the IAS 21. In add-on, the organization repeats the equivalent monetary proclamations under the standard of IAS 29, which the fortunes show that the British lb is the money of â€Å"hyperinflationary economy† . Despite what might be expected, the organization is non blocked from change overing the monetary articulations to be introduced in Gallic francs. AMERICAN STANDARDS The Generally Accepted Accounting Practice ( USA ) is the bookkeeping standards that are utilized with the United States of America to manage USA enterprises. These measures are particularly unique in relation to IAS as â€Å"U.S. bookkeeping rules have become â€Å"rules-based, † loaded up with explicit inside informations with an end goal to go to the same number of potential inevitabilities as possible†6. Resulting to the execution of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 out of a push to go to the activity, required the SEC to break down the practicableness of a standards based bookkeeping framework. It was presumed that, practicality of a standards based assault could reflect minutess at a genuine financial substance 7. Inside the USA legitimate force there is a nearby imposing business model for the creation of monetary inclusion measures for open organizations. The legal approval over monetary inclusion models is vested in the Securities Exchange Commission ( SEC ) and the creation rules are designated to the Financial Accounting Standards Board ( FASB ) . Most USA based organization utilize the Generally Accepted Accounting Practice. In the underlying thought of standards, GAAP is standards based frameworks that posture inconveniences, which will in general begin when explicit rules come up for thought. Nonetheless, non-selection of cosmopolitan standards of bookkeeping experience made incredible difficulties manufacture the expense and advantages of normal and consonant financial inclusion to get at effective arrangements. In add-on, this has made more remote occupations for clients of financial data as a result of the multifaceted nature in understanding the monetary explanations of abroad companies. In any case, there is solid grounds that figure of states utilize the USA bookkeeping rules as a benchmark to way models proper for their ain financial framework. It is verbalized that the Accounting Standards Board ( IASB ) , the FASB and the SEC are the best examples known to man. This is the ground environing USA assurance non to oblige cosmopolitan bookkeeping standards. In add-on, U.S. grants organizations to suit to looser By and enormous Accepted Accounting Principles. In the opposite, the leader of the SEC and the FASB and IASB have arrived at an agreement in 2002 on cooperating toward a more prominent union between U.S. Sound accounting guidelines and worldwide bookkeeping rules. Universal Standard Universal Accounting Standards are utilized in fixing financial examinations. It was the Lisbon Council of European Union ( EU ) to propel a sole, enduring and fluid financial market by the form and authorization of an individual and joined arrangement of monetary inclusion rules. The aim of the ISA was to set up and proceed with quality measures for all people who utilized such financial data. The affirmation of the elevating globalization set huge expectations for a superior and greater universal bookkeeping models. The European Commission supported the recommendations for IAS and moved the SEC assurance to dislike the utilization of ISA in the USA markets. SEC worries over the conceivable acknowledgment of ISA was in respect of the occupations that may

Thursday, July 23, 2020

Top 10 Literary References in Friday Night Lights

Top 10 Literary References in Friday Night Lights Even a die-hard Friday Night Lights fan like me has to admit it was not exactly a literary show. There are probably more bookish references in a couple of episodes of Mad Men than in five seasons of FNL. Heck, when the coach’s wife attends her first book club meeting, she’s told “We dont really read the book” and spends the evening dodging questions about her husband’s game strategies. Still, I ask you, would Lisa Simpson be seen viewing a stack of FNL DVDs in a Simpsons episode that guest starred Neil Gaiman (“The Book Job”), and would a literary show like Orange is the New Black reference Coach Taylor (“40 OZ of Furlough”), if there weren’t something bookish to be found therein? For your consideration: 10. “Ulysses was a pimp” In this lit class scene from Season 1’s “It’s Different for Girls,” the teacher asks why Helen’s adultery in The Iliad has more serious consequences than Ulysses’s dalliance with Crice in The Odyssey. Cocky star running back Smash Williams jokes that “Ulysses was a pimp,” explaining that monogamy is for women only. But Waverly, a smart, independent female student, reframes Smash’s joke in evolutionary terms before adding “we’re never so human as when we act contrary to our instinct, and … monogamy with the right person, is a state of higher evolution.” Naturally, they fall in love. 9. “It was medieval. You know, it was like The Scarlet Letter or something watching that girl walk across the cafeteria and everybody just glared at her.” In the same episode, when everyone finds out that prettily perfect cheerleader Lyla Garrity has been cheating on her boyfriend, it’s Lyla who gets the lion’s share of the public shaming. Tami tells her, Don’t worry about those jackasses, sweetie. and they share a heart-to-heart chat. Tami may not know what time period “medieval” actually refers to, but in stark contrast to Hester Prynne’s 17th  century community, she consistently supports young women in expressing their sexual agency. 8. “Without Lennie, George lost all his humanity.” In Season 1’s “Nevermind,” Tim Riggins gets brainy Landry Clark to read Of Mice and Men to him. Tim’s best friend has just experienced a career-ending injury that has left him paralyzed. Landry coaxes, “This is a book about two best friends who have a dream that gets crushed. … You cant tell me that theres not something in this head of yours that you can relate this to.” Tim doesnt bite, but he does manage a B- on the essay. 7. “It’s just like Camelot, guys!” A budget crisis forces the the East Dillon football program to close. In Texas, Whatever, the players get drunk one night on their abandoned field. When one player yells “It’s just like Camelot, guys!” another, Buddy Jr., asks “How is it like Camelot?” and the response is “You don’t read much, do you?” It’s not even a reference to any specific literary interpretation of the Arthurian legend, but it’s kind of perfect, since the football field, like the legendary Camelot, is a place of purpose, idealism, and even magic. Inspiring, temporary, and a little unreal, the field is everything and nothing, a point the show makes again and again. 6. “Dude, you do not have to hide porn from a baby.” Former QB Jason has had a one night stand that, miraculously from his point of view as a person who has sustained a disabling spinal cord injury, resulted in a baby. In S3’s “Every Rose Has Its Thorn,” Jason is tidying up the apartment before little Noah shows up, but his pal Herc tells him, “Dude, you do not have to hide porn from a baby. Babies are not freaked out by boobies . . . babies love vaginas, man. They just took a great trip through one. It’s like looking at a postcard.” I like the way this scene shows that people do sometimes feel that their reading material can reflect the kind of person they are, and affect how others see them. 5. “I thought that every book I read was like a rung on a ladder that I built to escape this town that was all about high school football and nothing else.” The focal point for the show’s explicit literary awareness is Julie Taylor, the coach’s precocious teenage daughter. In this scene from Season Four (“The Toilet Bowl”), Julie is being interviewed by a college admissions officer. She tells him that she was assigned Capote’s A Christmas Memory  for school, but went on to read all of his short stories, and was amazed to discover he and Harper Lee lived in the same small town. Julie once hated Dillon but now realizes that “I was shaped by my town … I have different viewpoint than every other person.” I think this is a great example of the ways novels can help us gain a fresh perspective on our own lives. 4. “If you like this, youll love A Prayer for Owen Meany.” It breaks my heart a little to put this scene from Season 2’s “Seeing Other People” on the list, because it’s a moment of uncharacteristic poor judgment from Tami Taylor. Julie has a crush on Mr. Barnett and he’s given her a copy of The World According to Garp. Mom Tami is having none of it: -Mr. Barnett. Can I ask you a question?  Whyd you give my daughter that book? -This? Because its really funny. Its, uh a pivotal book. -Its a pretty adult book, dont you think?  Its pretty sexual. -Im an English teacher here, and I can recommend reading to my students. -I dont like you giving salacious reading material to my daughter. I dont like you having lunch with her behind closed doors. I dont like you touching each other when you talk to each other. -Look. This is- -No, listen to me. I want you to be clear about something. I can have you fired. I can have my husband come over and beat the crap out of you. And I can have you thrown into prison. As a reader, I like the way this subplot shows that books can be significant symbolic objects in relationships, even questionable ones. 3. “Name the first novel and the last novel by the mid-century American novelist Thomas Wolfe, both of which deal with the American theme of the wanderer.” In Season 4, Julies boyfriend leaves Dillon without saying goodbye. In the Academic Smackdown, she gets a question about Thomas Wolfe that is all too apt. Through tears, she answers: “The first and last novel by mid-century American novelist Thomas Wolfe, both of which deal with the American theme of the wanderer. The first is Look Homeward, Angel, and the second is You Cant Go Home Again.” For Julie, every great book is about her personal life. 2. “Have you ever read the book The Giving Tree?” In this scene from Season 3’s “The Giving Tree,” longsuffering friend and admirer Landry Clarke finally calls out Tyra Collette for her selfishness: -Have you ever read the book The Giving Tree? -Yeah, when I was like five. -Its about this tree who loves this boy more than anything, right? And the boy just takes and takes and takes until theres absolutely nothing left but a stump. And Im like the tree and youre the boy just take and take and take, and theres absolutely nothing left, Tyra. Thats exactly what I feel like. Just a stump. Because this is not a friendship. Youre selfish. Its not a friendship. Critics argue about whether the relationship between the boy and the tree in Silverstein’s children’s book is exploitative or a model of caring altruism, but I’m with Landry on this one. Luckily, Tyra wises up before Landry reaches stumpification. 1. “Moby-Dick is actually the perfect metaphor for this town.” In the pilot episode, Julie Taylor is reading Moby-Dick while her dad watches football tapes, and she has an epiphany: Moby-Dick is actually the perfect metaphor for this town… The cold black sea representing the season in all its uncertainties. The magical white whale is the Holy Grail. … State championship. The boat, I mean, the whalers are the team, right? -Whos that make me? Coach Ahab? -Julie: Absolutely. Coach, captain, hunter, hunted. Driven to catch what may be uncatchable. On the face of it, this analogy doesn’t work at all. Captain Ahab sacrificed his men for his own twisted revenge, while Coach Taylor sacrifices himself to help his players. But to give Julie (and the writers) some credit, the whale and the town of Dillon do share a kind of ambiguity. Like Moby Dick, small town America as symbolized by Dillon has a legend that precedes it, a larger than life aura that has to be reconciled with its mundane reality. And just as the whale appeared differently to various characters in the novel, Dillon appears both unified and divided, safe and dangerous, progressive and regressive. The meaning of the whale, of football, or of Dillon, Texas, like the meaning of life, is finally just what we make of it.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Dr. Robert Vorona, An Associate Professor Of Internal...

There is no such thing as a sleep deprived horse, bat, whale, or any other mammal for that matter except the human. Humans are the only creature in their mammalian class to prolong other activities at the expense of sleep (National Sleep Foundation 1). The cost of such practices is our own lives and unfortunately, many do not know it. Study author Dr. Robert Vorona, an associate professor of internal medicine in the Division of Sleep Medicine at Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia stated â€Å"‘Teenagers need over nine hours of sleep a night, and it looks like a large number of teens don’t get sufficient sleep . . . that relates to the time that high schools begin’† (qtd. in Holhan 1). I believe the amount of sleep a student can get is largely based on the time his or her school begins. Sleep and student are not synonymous as in the fact that if one is affiliated with any sports, clubs, after school activities, or enrolled in challenging courses they are most likely up to their neck in home work once they arrive home. Finishing homework assignments, especially after coming home from an after school activity, can sometimes interfere with the 7-9 hours of sleep teenagers need every night. This large problem is detrimental for many reasons. Not receiving a full nights rest before waking up and driving to work or school early in the morning can simulate effects similar to driving under the influence of drugs which can lead to traffic collisions (Kendall Hamilton

Thursday, May 7, 2020

The Long-Term Effects of Bullying Essay - 1409 Words

Introduction There are several ongoing of issues that are effecting adolescents in today’s society ranging from low self-esteem, teen pregnancy, and obesity. Also, amongst these issues are the growing concerns and effects of bullying. Its epidemic is also starting to become closely related to the growing numbers of suicide rates amongst adolescents within the United States and across the globe. However, there are several adults that may take bullying lightly thinking that it is just a part of kids being kids. Whereas to an adolescent, bullying can cause long-term effects as they transition into adulthood. However, in order for one to examine the long-term effects of bullying one must be able to define what bullying is and determine the†¦show more content†¦Although harassment and bullying are be defined as two different things, legally, there are hopes that these policies can help reduce bullying if they are implemented correctly and accordingly. In conjunction to state and federa l laws, studies also show that an adolescent’s social environment can have a major effect on bullying as well. There are several theories that articulate that an adolescent can becomes easily influenced by intimate relationships and their social environments; such as the Primary Socialization Theory and Bandura’s Social Learning Theory. Studies have shown that bullying rates are more likely to be lower in bigger schools than in smaller schools that no transition from middle to high school. Also, according to statistical records, 9 out of 10 youth that are bullied at school are homosexual identified youth which in turns leads to them being two to three times more likely to commit suicide. According to Kalman (2013), when it comes to eliminating the issues and concerns of bullying, individuals are too busy trying to take legal/law enforcement action instead of taking scientific/psychological approaches. By not addressing these issues correctly, bullying rates will continue to increase leading to the long-term effects such as criminality and violent behaviors in later adult years. Background Bullying is an act of repeated aggressive behavior with the intentions ofShow MoreRelatedThe Long Term Effects of Bullying Among Teenagers769 Words   |  3 Pagesthe reasoning behind an issue and or a prevention and intervention plan for major issues, such as bullying, that are affecting individuals and the society, it is important that theoretical frameworks are used. According to the 2010 statistics, with bullying becoming a rapidly growing issue and concern affecting both youth and adults, the crime of bullying will not be going away anytime soon. Bullying is performed in several different forms ranging from physically, verbally, and even cyber within ourRead MoreCyber Bullying: A Study of Long Term Effects on Adolescent Cyber Bullying1561 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction: Cyber bullying is a topic that has been researched many times. As technology changes, it is important that research is kept up to date on how victimization can affect present and future psychosocial adjustment issues. Cyber bullying is defined as victimization that intends to harm another through electronic means, where individuals can harm without physical interaction. (Tokunaga, 2010). Cyber bullying requires little planning and there is little chance of being caught. It is importantRead MoreThe Short Term Effects Of Bullying On Adolescents969 Words   |  4 Pageswebsite Eyes on Bullying statistically in a U.S. national study with youth in grades 6 through 10, almost 30% —more than 5.7 million—were involved in moderate or frequent bullying during the current school term, as a bully, victim, or both. â€Å"According to researchers, bullying is still commonly viewed by many as just a harmless rite of passage or an inevitable part of growing up.† (Impact of Bu llying Traits both victims, bullies into Adulthood) Does bullying have short term effects on adolescents?Read MoreAbstract Bullying1358 Words   |  6 PagesAbstract Bullying is a social and psychological issue among animals and humans that emerges in an emotional, verbal, or physical form. Although the issue of bullying among humans has existed for quite some time, recent research of the issue has grown significantly and indicates that bullying takes many forms and effects individuals or groups of different ages, genders, races, geographic locations, and socio-economic status. There are many causes of bullying and the goal of the analysis is to Read MoreThe Effects Of Bullying On Children s Adult Life1594 Words   |  7 PagesB2 11/21/14 The Effects of Bullying All throughout the world, there are many people being bullied at this very moment. While bullying is considered as a rite of passage to some people, it is becoming more and more harmful and destructive to its many victims. Bullying is known as â€Å"unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance† (â€Å"Bullying Definition† 1). This can be seen through both boys and girls, young and old. Bullying has no age limitRead MoreBullying : A Child s Worst Nightmare868 Words   |  4 PagesBullying. A child s worst nightmare; it is a terrible and recurring sight in society. All children can handle this differently. The causes of bullying are normally related to how a child is raised or just on his/her mental status. Bullying has negative effects on everyone involved; the bully, the victim, and even the bystanders. The prevention or stopping of bullying is necessary for society. By having a clear understanding of the ca uses and effects of bullying it will guide people to stopping orRead MoreBullying Is A Universal Issue1428 Words   |  6 PagesBullying is a universal issue that can be found in schools worldwide and it has become an increasing pressing issue within the current school system. It can be said that bullying begins during the earlier stages of primary school and then continues through to secondary schools. According to the NSPCC (2014), bullying is defined as â€Å"a behaviour that hurts someone.† This type of behaviour can involve an individual engaging in name calling, threatening another individual as well as physically abusingRead MoreEssay on Effects of Bullying 1232 Words   |  5 Pages Bullying is a terrible and dangerous activity that occurs in numerous places, such as schools, workplaces, and even homes. According to a study conducted in 2010, â€Å"about one in seven students in grades kindergarten through 12th grade is either a bully or has been a victim of bullying† (â€Å"Bullying Statistics†). Bullying can be performed by a student, co-worker, or even a parent. There are many classifications of bullying, each with their own causes, such as a lack of parental guidance, low self esteemRead MoreBullying Is A Serious And Persistent Concern Facing Modern Youth Essay1535 Words   |  7 Pagessimple, yet painful action characterized as bullying..... Bullying refers to any physical or emotional action that s used to intentionally hurt or even terrorize a person. As stated by psychologist, Jodi Viljoen, and other individuals, The recent surge of empirical studies has identified bullying as a serious and persistent concern facing modern youth (Viljoen , O Neill, Sidhu, 2005, pg. 521). Many people are the suspects and even the victims of bullying, in spite of the fact that it isn t visibleRead MoreNegative Effects Of Bullying1232 Words   |  5 Pages Bullying is a continuing problem that has affected individuals from their childhood and continuing well into adulthood. Consequences of bullying are vast in their potential to negatively impact the person s physical, emotional, and psychological state of well being. The poor management of stress brought by the onset of bullying affects social health both short term and long term foreshadowing numerous potential risk factors and actions. Prevalent issues in victims include higher chances of mental

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Definition of Statehood Free Essays

Before diving into the question of this essay, one that looks simple on the surface but reveals itself to be as complicated as it is deep, I found myself asking how we define â€Å"statehood†. It’s all good and well to say that the state is a contested organisation, but when the idea of what exactly a state is comes into it, that statement becomes all the less clear. By definition a nation state is a state/country that possesses clear borders and land, and contains mostly the same type of people by either race or cultural background. We will write a custom essay sample on The Definition of Statehood or any similar topic only for you Order Now ttp://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/467746/political-system/36702/National-political-systems? anchor=ref416908 Yet some states have numerous ethnicities, Nigeria for example has been calculated to have over two hundred culturally distinct groups, even Gambia, whose population numbers about half a million people, has eight distinct ethnic groups (Hughes 1981: 122). Then again, these are both countries that are considered as â€Å"failed states†, something I will return to later on. According to Philip Cerny, statehood is the capacity to guard the social, economic and political life of its people and also to protect them from external threats and predators. He then goes on to say that states regularly fail at one of these tasks, often not doing well at both at the same time. Statehood, according to Cerny, is the â€Å"problematique of the modern world system itself†. Why? Why are nation states so bad at doing what they say on the tin? Surely it can’t be that hard to defend one’s people and at the same time give them basic needs such as employment, welfare and education. Of course, the world isn’t a perfect place, and we have yet to reach the utopia dreamt of by our grandparents, but really does everything have to be so terrible? To be fair Cerny does give a good argument against that, and provides much evidence to show that the state is indeed a contested organisation. He argues that â€Å"future structural organisational developments will depend on the kinds of political coalitions that can be built to confront and deal with those challenges†, especially those involving cross-border networks. In that case the result is likely to be a more complex form of world politics that is not only multi-level but also multi-nodal. Cerny makes a clear statement that the ideal states are â€Å"organisationally distinct from families, churches, classes, races, economic institutions† and also non-state political organisations. He then simplifies that claim that the state is a contested organisation by breaking it down into 3 sections: economically, socially and politically. First we will look at each of these individually and examine that statement. Of the three, the most interesting to me was his ascertain that the state is an economically contested organisation. Cerny says that states are organised through relationships of power, but they are also bound to the ideals of fairness and justice. Economic groups such as corporations and markets however, are not. They revolve around a principle of profit and aren’t shackled by the same need to be ‘nice’ that states are. One can go so far as to say that Cerny is nearly directly addressing the issue of globalisation without ever saying the word. Take big companies such as Coca Cola or McDonalds, while they give a consumer-friendly image and do help communities with various projects, at the end of the day they are 100% profit driven and if circumstances dictated that they must drop half their workforce to save costs, you can be sure that they would. Globalisation has meant that corporations no longer operate within borders, and for the most part are free to trade as they please. That some of these firms make more money than the Irish state is a very scary thought indeed. It is an invasive and destabilizing phenomenon that states must contest with. Not only does it signal heightened interconnectedness, but it encroaches into those formal-legal aspects of sovereignty that secure or tie down authority in the first instance, and benefit from it in the second. In other words, â€Å"the transnational connections inherent in globalisation are significant on a qualitative as well as a quantitative level. But what new patterns of authority are emerging here? † (Williams 1996: 118) It is said of sovereignty that there is plenty of it around, but that as a result of globalisation â€Å"the sites for its concentration have changed. According to this argument states are being forced to concede certain of their sovereign powers to regional, transnational or world bodies on one hand, and to local and other sub-national institutions on the other. On a side note while on the point of globalisation, though Cerny doesn’t explore the idea it is also worth mentioning the globalisation of military power as it contests with every stat e organisation. Advanced nuclear weapons systems can now operate worldwide, for they can deliver their payloads to any place at all on the planet, and do so within a very short time. They are thus capable of making the whole earth uninhabitable, and of threatening the very survival of the all states, whether they wish it or not (Poggi 1990: 177). You really can’t get much more global than that. The next area we will examine is Cerny’s claim that the state is a socially contested organisation. According to him states â€Å"are not natural, spontaneous emanations† from a â€Å"taken for granted, pre-existing society, people, or public†, they are made up from real people who base them on a range of often divided groups such as class, ethnicity, religion and ideology to name a few. People who are born in to this nation state may not always agree with or like the way things are and can find themselves caught in conflicts of identity, and the state finds itself constantly at odds with those who feel socially indoctrinated with the rules, power structures and policies of that state. As Cerny says, â€Å"citizens are made, not born†. Another big social contender is the internet, any one person can simply log on to Facebook (or other social networking sites) and instantly connect with people all over the world, again ignoring state boundaries. The final point that is discussed is that the state is a politically contested organisation. This can nearly go without saying, as there isn’t a state in the world that hasn’t been challenged politically at one stage or another. This happens on all ends of the scale, from as Cerny puts it: â€Å"absolutist monarchs and national revolutionaries to various bureaucrats, officials, patrons and clients†. He even goes on to mention religious movements and criminal gangs. It is important to note that the organisational strengths that Cerny mentions, whether they be rooted in widely accepted social identities or bonds, or that they have power internationally, need not only apply to Westphalian states (and indeed many of those ‘official’ states are weak on those levels). Take certain groups such as Hezbollah or the IRA for example, upon looking past the fact that they are viewed by some as terrorist organisations (although most European countries have refused to classify Hezbollah as a terrorist organisation [http://www. digitalnpq. org/archive/2009_summer/03_qassem. tml]), these groups often take on the state roles for the people they claim to serve. Hezbollah is a major provider of social services, operating schools, hospitals, and agricultural services for thousands and playing a significant part in Lebanese politics. [http://www. cfr. org/publication/9155/hezbollah_aka_hizbollah_hizbullah. html? breadcrumb=/]. Likewise the IRA are renow ned for looking after their own, be it ensuring the well being of prisoner families or upholding the law (or at least a version of it), in areas where traditional state politics have failed. Going back now to the other two headings for the contested state, economically and politically, and applying them to the state â€Å"alternatives† I mentioned above, it is hard to understand why Cerny didn’t do the same. One can not simply draw a line in the sand and say that all the ones over here (those of the Westphalia type) are states, and those over there are not. There are many similarities to be found on both sides. These groups also find themselves to be contested organisations. Yes it can be argued that economically, Hezbollah only functions because the nation states of Iran and Syria support them, but the same was also said of the peripheral state of Cuba when it was funded by the USSR (Giddens 1985: 269). In the north the IRA have succeeded in many social areas that the government have not, giving identity, protection and services to a select group of people who otherwise feel abandoned by a system that is supposed to do the same. The downfall of these groups is that their (occasional) focus on fighting and violence only serves to detract from the other areas. Yet returning to Cerny, he raises the point that some find the cost of the US’s war in Iraq (estimated at 2-3 trillion dollars), has prevented it from addressing issues both domestically (health care and employment for example) and abroad (development aid, fighting disease ect). This shows that even the largest of official states can do itself damage by focusing too much on military operations. But what happens when a state can do no more for its people? When it becomes such a contested organisation that it loses physical control of its How to cite The Definition of Statehood, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection Essay Example

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection Paper Pedagogy of the Oppressed, falls into the political philosophy genre. After I read Chapter 2 of Pedagogy of the Oppressed, my first thought was about the reservation boarding school system. Indian schooling started with missionaries and teachers in missionary schools were at least as interested in salvation as in education. According to many observers, the discipline of the schools usually included getting Indians to dress, speak, and act like white people. Native Americans serve as perfect â€Å"containers† and â€Å"receptacles† for teachers of that time. (Freire 4) Many teachers that teach in Tribal communities often use the concept of â€Å"the teacher know everything and the students know nothing†. (Freire 8) This semester I had a teacher that said, â€Å"I’m going to teach you as though you know nothing†. This goes to show that teachers, even in current times are obsessed with their authority over students. The â€Å"banking system† only works to the extent of students being able to regurgitate what the teacher tells the student. The students do not learn when they are told to memorize items, just so the student can get a good test grade. I have experienced this during my academic career. I personally retain more information when teachers communicate and tell me why I need to learn what I need to learn. â€Å"’Four times four is sixteen; the capital of Para is Belem. The students records, memorizes, and repeats these phrases without perceiving what four times four really means, or realizing the true significance of â€Å"capital† in the affirmation ‘the capital of Para is Belem,’ that is, what Belem means for Para and what Para means for Brazil. † This type of teaching is taught everywhere. I feel as though it is worse for Tribal communities, and I’m only saying that because the high school drop out rate is higher among Native Americans th an other ethnicities. Not to mention, in the university level, the graduation rate is lower. We will write a custom essay sample on Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Pedagogy of the Oppressed Chapter 2 Reflection specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer I believe, is because of the quality of education we, Native, people receive in Tribal Communities. This reading was fairly difficult. I am not used to reading such complex writings. In order to understand the reading more efficiently, I think it would be better to start with something slightly simpler. This is the first time I have ever read something of this magnitude, I enjoyed it. I felt as though it challenged me to break out of my comfort zone. Bibliography Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2000.